General characteristics of virus
1. They have very small, non-cytoplasmic, particle-like body structure.
2. They are capable of passing through bacterial filter.
3. They does not fall under any type of cellular grade of body organisation (either unicellular or multicellular).
4. Existence of their life is completely dependent upon any other living cells.
5. In the environment i.e., outside the living cell they remain as inactive and resembles like a dead.
6. As soon as they enter the living cell they destroy the normal functioning and mechanism of the living cell and then starts replicating and multiply their numbers.
7. They contains only one type of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA, but never contains both of these together.
8. Certain enzymes essential for synthesis of protein and nucleic acid are absent in them.
9. The structural unit of virus particle is called virion.
10. They generally does not multiply through binary fission.
11. Some viruses are found as crystal form.
12. On the basis of the nucleic acid viruses are generally classified as DNA virus (T-phage virus) and RNA virus (TMV or Tobacco Mosaic Virus).
Economic importance of virus.
1. Viruses are used in the preparation of vaccine for different diseases such as: jaundice, pox, mumps, etc.
2. There are certain special viruses which controls the invagination of some animals and insects which are harmful to humans.
3. T2 bacteriophage helps humans from the harmful effects of dysentery by destroying harmful bacteria such as: E coli.
4. They are very useful laboratory agent.
5. They are used in the genetic research and so they are an important subject in genetic engineering.
6. They play an important role in acquiring knowledge about the fashion of evolution and the phenomenon of development of living organisms as they have both living and non-living features.
7. Due to the presence of both living and non-living characters they are used in the Biotechnological research field.
8. Bacteriophages are used in the preservation of water and they are capable of destroying bacteria and keeping the water fresh.
9. They plays a very important role in the treatment of cancer and also in gene therapy.
10. They are used in the production of proteins.
11. They are considered as the organic nanoparticles in the field of nanotechnology.
12. They can also be used for biological warfare for human societies.
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