Reproduction in Algae | Vegetative, Asexual and Sexual reproduction

Reproduction in Algae | Vegetative, Asexual and Sexual reproduction

Reproduction in Algae

3 different modes of reproduction in algae are:       1. Vegetative reproduction       2. Asexual reproduction       3. Sexual reproduction

1. Vegetative reproduction

i. Simple cell division or fission:

This is generally seen in unicellular algae where parental cell simply gets divided into daughter cell and behaves as a new individual. Example: Synechococcus sp.

ii. Fragmentation:

It is generally seen in filamentous algae where the body i.e., the filaments breaks up into fragments and each fragment then develops into a new individual. 

Spirogyra sp.

iii. Hormogones:

This type of reproduction is generally seen in cyanobacteria where the trichomes breaks up into multi-celled segments. Example: Nostoc, Oscillatoria, etc.

iv. Adventitious branch:

In this case a small branch first develop from the parent body which slowly grows and after becoming mature they get detached from the parent and grows into a new individuals. Example: Oedogonium, Fucus, etc.

v. Bulbils:

These are the small outgrowths which are formed on the parent body due to certain specific reasons which after getting mature detaches from the parent body grows into a new individual. Example: Chara.

vi. Amylum:

These are the aggregation of many cells into a star-shaped structure in the parent body. These after getting mature detaches from the parent and develops into a new individual. Example: Chara.

2. Asexual reproduction:

i. Zoospores:

These are flagellated, motile and naked spores which are formed within a special chamber called zoosporangium. The zoospores within the zoosporangium may be biflagellate, tetraflagellate or multiflagellate. Example: Chlamydomonas (biflagellate), Ulothrix (tetraflagellate), Vauchereria (multiflagellate), etc.

ii. Aplanospores:

These are non-motile spores of some of the aquatic algae which are formed under unfavourable condition. Each alpanospore is covered by a certain wall which is different from that of the parental cell wall. Each aplanospore then germinates into a new individual in getting a suitable environmental condition. Example: Ulothrix.

iii. Akinetes:

These are thick-walled, elongated spores formed during unfavourable environmental conditions. This in response to favourable environmental condition, germinates into a new individual. Example: Oedogonium, Nostoc, etc.

iv. Tetraspore:

These are the non-motile spores which are formed in some members of the class Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae. These are formed within the tetrasporangium of the tetrasporophytic plants. Example: Polysiphonia.

v. Autospores:

These are the certain non-motile spores which resembles the parent cell in shape, structure and appearance. Example: Chlorella.

3. Sexual reproduction:

i. Autogamy:

It is a certain type of sexual reproduction in which the two gametes from the same plant are fused together to produce a new individual. Example: Diatoms.

ii. Isogamy:

It is a certain kind of sexual reproduction in which the two morphologically and physiologically similar gametes from the two different plants are fused together to produce a new individual. Example: Ulothrix.

iii. Anisogamy:

In this type of sexual reproduction two morphologically and physiologically dissimilar gametes from two different plants fuse together to form a new individual. Example: Chlamydomonas.

iv. Oogamy:

It is an advanced sexual reproduction in which one of the two gametes is smaller, active,  flagellated and motile, this is called as antherozoid or spermatozoid and the other one is larger, passive, non-flagellated and non-motile, this is called as oogonium gets united and produces a new individual. Example: Rhodophyta.

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